Yes, he did.
He endured incredible physical pain when he touched Harry, because he was sharing his body with Voldemort at the time. When Dumbledore arrived to break them appart, Voldemort abandoned Quirrel. When Voldemort shares a body and soul with a being, that being's lifespan dwindles, severely. While a host of Voldemort, he was only able to continue to live by drinking unicorn blood. After the conflict, however, he was too weak when Voldemort left him, and died almost immediately.